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Burdur, Mediterranean Region, Turkey (37.51834 30.16913)
The history of the urban development of Burdur is generally held to begin with the Turkish settlement after the Seljuq victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. In the late 11th century, the Kınalı tribe of the Oghuz Turks captured the Burdur area and settled there. Turks became the majority of the population of the area after 1211, establishing a number of villages in addition to expanding the town. The first Turkish settlement was in an area known as Hamam Bendi that had a lower elevation than today's city but was farther to the lake than the ancient town of Limnombria. These residents used the site of today's Grand Mosque of Burdur as an open marketplace, known as Alanpazarı. Realising the high incidence of malaria in the area they had settled, these residents then moved uphill, away from the lake. These first residents had not submitted to any state, but Kilij Arslan II, the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, captured the area in 1177 and imposed his sovereignty over the local tribes. The town remained under the undisputed sovereignty of the Sultanate of Rum between 1206 and 1260, when it was captured by the Mongol Empire. Developing commerce in the port of Antalya increased the significance of Burdur as a centre of commerce. Tragacanth obtained from the mountains of Psidia, wine from Kütahya, wax, wood and tar from many parts of Anatolia passed through Burdur, in exchange of which Egyptian spices, cotton and sugar was traded.